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Uzbekistan Men Video

What is UZBEKISTAN? (Incredible Central Asian Gem)

This makes them extraordinary and highly desired. So, now you know what character traits and specificities of the appearance of beautiful Uzbekistan women attract men.

But what kind of women they become after marriage? Read further and figure it out. Though, according to statistics, there is no lack of men in the Uzbekistan population many local women are looking for fiances from abroad.

The main traits which women concern to be negative in local men are:. So, many Uzbekistan women look for better husbands without such character traits among foreigners.

You can see a lot of sexy Uzbekistan women in their motherland. But going so far in search of a future wife is not that easy.

There are websites on which you can meet sexy Uzbekistan girls. So, get registered on a good and reliable website and choose an appropriate woman among the hundreds of Uzbekistan mail order brides.

Here are some more details you need to learn before you start looking for Uzbekistan women for marriage. The most widely spoken languages in this country are Uzbekistan and Russian.

English is taught at school, so, many Uzbekistan girls know it at least on an elementary level. It seems weird to communicate with friends of their life partners for people of this nationality.

Her friends are only hers, and your friends are only yours. Even if she moves to your country she will prefer to make her own friends than to spend time together with yours.

Like all the Asian people, Uzbekistan women have a great attachment to their parents. And they visit them regularly even after getting married and moving to another city or country.

There is no tradition in Uzbekistan for sons-in-law to visit their mothers-in-law obligatory. Just be ready to take a vacation separately from her because most likely she will have a desire to spend her holidays together with the family in her motherland.

David Andres is a certified coach in the field of relations between a man and a woman. He is convinced that the difference in mentality is not an obstacle, but an advantage, as it gives more opportunities for the development of relations where each in the couple will be self-sufficient.

Compiling guides on women from different Asian countries, he used his practical experience as a coach to provide you with specific tips and tactics.

Skip to content Some materials on this Website could be sponsored. See our Advertising Disclosure for more details. Post Author: David Anders Uzbekistan is the country with a bright and original culture.

Uzbekistan girls are bright representatives of the exotic Eastern beauty. Their entrancing hazel eyes and long fluffy hair enthrall everyone who sees them.

Uzbekistan women are fond of house parties. They enjoy inviting guests and treat them very well. There is a tradition in Uzbekistan that everyone who comes to your place should be treated to tea.

And so welcoming attitude to everybody helps to maintain good relationships with other people. He was afraid he would get angry and want to assault that person.

This from an educated person who said he had studied psychology in college! It was unnerving for me to hear how his religion has blinded him to scientific understanding of human diversity.

But for at least few minutes he was willing to engage with me on the issue. I said a gay man can have sex with a women, physically have intercourse, but that was not what he desired.

Many gay men are married in the world—indeed most gay men—in order to be accepted in society and family and avoid the son and curse of homosexuality.

A young Muslim gay man from Yemen recently told me the same thing; he will marry in order not to lose this family or his country.

Komol thought being gay was a sudden choice whereby a person wanted to be gay and went that way. He seemed ignorant of the evolved biological nature of human sexuality.

I said that being gay was something natural from birth, for most LGBTs. That the process is a very complicated growth process involving genetics which he also mentioned and hormones.

It was not something that came along years after birth that one suddenly decided upon. Click to enlarge. Much as I wanted to engage him more deeply I felt uneasy talking to someone whose mind seemed limited and closed by prejudice.

I did not want to shake his skewed version of human nature in the brief moments of our conversation. Indeed, it was a bit scary to talk—intelligently and thoughtfully—to someone who was so deeply programmed by Islamic ideas that blocked out real-world truths that conflicted with its doctrines.

My third conversation was with Jaris, a thirty-something college educated articulate tour consultant who spoke fluent English, Russian and local Uzbek dialect.

We had spoken several times in arranging a tour and visiting his office. The different is big for LGBTs who are exposed or accidentally outed to their family.

More likely there would be serious upset and the gay person would be stigmatized and perhaps asked to live somewhere else, or not. The influence of that pernicious law has spread over wide regions of the Russian far east and throughout Central Asia, from Vladivostok to Ukraine with a significant increase in homophobic violence, pushing LGBTs further back into the closet.

A Russian-Uzbek family would certainly feel the overt or subtle impact of that law and very likely strengthen the dismay and anger toward a gay son or daughter.

Even non-practicing Orthodox parents would be feel confused and find it hard to absorb such a cognitive and emotional knock but they would not likely get out their knives and guns to annihilate their own flesh.

By contrast, I have met some Russian LGBTs who have come out to their open-minded families and been accepted and protected against social bigotry.

Activist Nicholai Baev in Moscow told me about his kind-hearted mother who always suspected her son was different and was not surprised when he came out to her.

Some parents see the deeper truth that comes from nature rather than from a mysterious scriptural history of myth. But for the LGBT son or daughter in a devout Uzbek family there is little space to breathe and little time to get out,.

Again, there are no public newspapers in this city of over two million people. A photographer was put on trial in for displaying images of poverty and inequality in rural Uzbekistan.

In February she was found guilty of slandering and insulting the Uzbek people, but was absolved of the charges and was released.

From such a slight infraction and its serious consequences one can easily imagine the rukus that would result from a LGBT person coming out in public.

So gays stay silent or emigrate. Today not only the artists but many tradesmen leave the country for Russia mostly, also for Kazakhstan because of unemployment and inflation—as well as the persistent paranoia that pervades everyday life read, police on every corner.

David explained that the Ilkhom Theatre photo left is the only place in the country where freedom of expression still exists, at least for now. The story was written by a journalist using a pseudonym about a gay man who was blackmailed in a sting operation.

From the legal standpoint, the witnesses are useless, even in Uzbekistan where justice is blind and corrupt, but from the point of view of an Uzbek gay person, it is social suicide.

Some had to give [policemen] their cars, gold and other valuables. Because what is at stake is your family, job, social standing—your life.

Several gay people in Tashkent, as well as the aforementioned former investigator, tell Fergananews. He was a direct descendant of Timur Tamerlane and also in the lineage of Genghis Khan.

Babur is also accepted as an important poet and the author of the first autobiography in the history of Muslim literature. I felt exceptionally disposed towards him.

And I hope I'll find her here. Keliwgan tartibli. Vaqti kelganda jiddiy va xuwchaqchaq. Xalzilni yoqtiradigan. I like to meet new people and get to know them.

I am currently in South Africa and would like to relocate to Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan Men Video

UZBEK PEOPLE - Uzbek Man \u0026 CULTURE (What To Know \u0026 Expect) ~Story Time~

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The flag and national colors—green for nature, white for peace, red for life, and blue for water—adorn murals and walls.

The twelve stars on the flag symbolize the twelve regions of the country. The crescent moon, a symbol of Islam, is common, though its appearance on the national flag is meant not as a religious symbol but as a metaphor for rebirth.

The mythical bird Semurg on the state seal also symbolizes a national renaissance. Cotton, the country's main source of wealth, is displayed on items from the state seal to murals to teacups.

The architectures of Samara and Bukhara also symbolize past achievements. Amir Timur, who conquered a vast area of Asia from his seat in Samarkand in the fourteenth century, has become a major symbol of Uzbek pride and potential and of the firm but just and wise ruler—a useful image for the present government, which made the Year of Amir Timur.

Timur lived more than a century before the Uzbeks reached Uzbekistan. Independence Day, 1 September, is heavily promoted by the government, as is Navruz, 21 March, which highlights the country's folk culture.

Emergence of the Nation. The Uzbeks coalesced by the fourteenth century in southern Siberia, starting as a loose coalition of Turkic-Mongol nomad tribes who converted to Islam.

In the first half of the fifteenth century Abu al-Khayr Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, led them south, first to the steppe and semidesert north of the Syr-Daria River.

At this time a large segment of Uzbeks split off and headed east to become the Kazakhs. In Abu'l Khayr was killed by a competing faction, but by the Uzbeks had regrouped under Muhammad Shaybani Khan, and invaded the fertile land of modern Uzbekistan.

They expelled Amir Timur's heirs from Samarkand and Herat and took over the city-states of Khiva, Khojand, and Bokhara, which would become the Uzbek capital.

Settling down, the Uzbeks traded their nomadism for urban living and agriculture. The first century of Uzbek rule saw a flourishing of learning and the arts, but the dynasty then slid into decline, helped by the end of the Silk Route trade.

In invaders from Iran defeated Bokhara and Khiva, breaking up the Uzbek Empire and replacing any group identity with the division between Sarts, or city dwellers, and nomads.

What followed was the Uzbek emirate of Bokhara and Samarkand, and the khanates of Khiva and Kokand, who ruled until the Russian takeover.

Russia became interested in Central Asia in the eighteenth century, concerned that the British might break through from colonial India to press its southern flank.

Following more than a century of indecisive action, Russia in invaded Bokhara, then brutally subjugated Khiva in Both were made Russian protectorates.

In , Khokand was annexed. All were subsumed into the Russian province of Turkistan, which soon saw the arrival of Russian settlers.

The s produced the Jadid reform movement, which, though short-lived, sought to establish a community beholden neither to Islamic dogma nor to Russian colonists, marking the first glimmer of national identity in many years.

With the Russian Revolution in grew hopes of independence, but by the Bolsheviks had reasserted control. In Soviet planners drew the borders for the soviet socialist republics of Uzbekistan and Karakalpakistan, based around the dominant ethnic groups.

In Tajikstan was split off from the south of Uzbekistan, causing lasting tension between the two; many Uzbeks regard Tajiks as Persianized Uzbeks, while Tajikstan resented Uzbekistan's retention of the Tajik cities of Bokhara and Samarkand.

Karakalpakistan was transferred to the Uzbekistan SSR in , as an autonomous region. Over the ensuing decades, Soviet leaders solidified loose alliances and other nationalities into what would become Uzbek culture.

After the coup failed, Uzbekistan declared its independence on 1 September. Though shifting away from communism, President Islom Kharimov, who had been the Communist Party's first secretary in Uzbekistan, has maintained absolute control over the independent state.

He has continued to define a single Uzbek culture, while obscuring its Soviet creation. National Identity. The Soviet government, and to a lesser extent the Russian colonial government that preceded it, folded several less prominent nationalities into the Uzbeks.

The government then institutionalized a national Uzbek culture based on trappings such as language, art, dress, and food, while imbuing them with meanings more closely aligned with Communist ideology.

Islam was removed from its central place, veiling of women was banned, and major and minor regional and ethnic differences were smoothed over in favor of an ideologically acceptable uniformity.

Since the government has kept the Soviet definition of their nationhood, simply because prior to this there was no sense or definition of a single Uzbek nation.

But it is literally excising the Soviet formation of the culture from its history books; one university history test had just 1 question of dealing with the years to Ethnic Relations.

Since independence, tightening border controls and competition for jobs and resources have caused difficulties for some of these communities, despite warm relations among the states of the region.

In June , rioting in the Ferghana Valley killed thousands of Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported there in Across the border in Osh, Kyrgyzstan, the Uzbek majority rioted in over denial of land.

There is official support of minority groups such as Russians, Koreans, and Tatars. These groups have cultural centers, and in a law that was to have made Uzbek the only language of official communication was relaxed.

Nevertheless, non-Uzbek-speakers have complained that they face difficulties finding jobs and entering a university.

As a result of this and of poor economic conditions, many Russians and others have left Uzbekistan. In ancient times the cities of Samarkand and Bokhara were regarded as jewels of Islamic architecture, thriving under Amir Timur and his descendants the Timurids.

They remain major tourist attractions. During the Soviet period, cities became filled with concrete-slab apartment blocks of four to nine stories, similar to those found across the USSR.

In villages and suburbs, residents were able to live in more traditional one-story houses built around a courtyard.

These houses, regardless of whether they belong to rich or poor, present a drab exterior, with the family's wealth and taste displayed only for guests.

Khivan houses have a second-story room for entertaining guests. Since independence, separate houses have become much more popular, supporting something of a building boom in suburbs of major cities.

One estimate puts two-thirds of the population now living in detached houses. The main room of the house is centered around the dusterhon, or tablecloth, whether it is spread on the floor or on a table.

Although there are not separate areas for women and children, women tend to gather in the kitchen when male guests are present.

Parks are used for promenading; if a boy and a girl are dating, they are referred to as walking together. Benches are in clusters, to allow neighbors to chat.

Food in Daily Life. Bread holds a special place in Uzbek culture. At mealtime, bread will be spread to cover the entire dusterhon.

Traditional Uzbek bread, tandir non, is flat and round. It is always torn by hand, never placed upside down, and never thrown out.

Meals begin with small dishes of nuts and raisins, progressing through soups, salads, and meat dishes and ending with palov, a rice-and-meat dish synonymous with Uzbek cuisine throughout the former Soviet Union; it is the only dish often cooked by men.

Other common dishes, though not strictly Uzbek, include monti, steamed dumplings of lamb meat and fat, onions, and pumpkin, and kabob, grilled ground meat.

Uzbeks favor mutton; even the nonreligious eschew pig meat. Because of their climate, Uzbeks enjoy many types of fruits, eaten fresh in summer and dried in winter, and vegetables.

Dairy products such as katyk, a liquid yogurt, and suzma, similar to cottage cheese, are eaten plain or used as ingredients.

Tea, usually green, is drunk throughout the day, accompanied by snacks, and is always offered to guests. Meals are usually served either on the floor, or on a low table, though high tables also are used.

The table is always covered by a dusterhon. Guests sit on carpets, padded quilts, chairs, or beds, but never on pillows. Men usually sit cross-legged, women with their legs to one side.

The most respected guests sit away from the entrance. Objects such as shopping bags, which are considered unclean, never should be placed on the dusterhon, nor should anyone ever step on or pass dirty items over it.

The choyhona, or teahouse, is the focal point of the neighborhood's men. It is always shaded, and if possible located near a stream.

The Soviets introduced restaurants where meals center around alcohol and can last through the night. The Karakalpaks' national dish is besbarmak, boiled mutton, beef, or horse served over a plate of broad noodles and accompanied by the reduced broth.

Russians have brought many of their foods, such as pelmeni, boiled meat dumplings, borscht, A vendor sells round loaves of bread called tandirnon to a customer at the Bibi Bazaar in Samarkand.

Bread is especially important in Uzbek culture. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Uzbeks celebrate whenever possible, and parties usually consist of a large meal ending with palov.

The food is accompanied by copious amounts of vodka, cognac, wine, and beer. Elaborate toasts, given by guests in order of their status, precede each round of shots.

After, glasses are diligently refilled by a man assigned the task. A special soup of milk and seven grains is eaten on Navruz.

During the month of Ramadan, observant Muslims fast from sunrise until sunset. Basic Economy. The majority of goods other than food come from China, Turkey, Pakistan, and Russia.

It is very common for families in detached homes to have gardens in which they grow food or raise a few animals for themselves, and if possible, for sale.

Even families living in apartments will try to grow food on nearby plots of land, or at dachas. Land Tenure and Property. Beginning in , Uzbekistanis have been able to buy their apartments or houses, which had been state property, for the equivalent of three months' salary.

Thus most homes have become private property. Agricultural land had been mainly owned by state or collective farms during the Soviet period. In many cases the same families or communities that farmed the land have assumed ownership, though they are still subject to government quotas and government guidelines, usually aimed at cotton-growing.

About two-thirds of small businesses and services are in private hands. Many that had been state-owned were auctioned off. While the former nomenklatura government and Communist Party officials often won the bidding, many businesses also have been bought by entrepreneurs.

Large factories, however, largely remain state-owned. Major Industries. Uzbekistan's industry is closely tied to its natural resources.

Cotton, the white gold of Central Asia, forms the backbone of the economy, with 85 percent exported in exchange for convertible currency.

Agricultural machinery, especially for cotton, is produced in the Tashkent region. Oil refineries produce about , barrels a day.

However, in the plant produced just 58, cars, and it produced far less in , chiefly for the domestic market.

With Daewoo's bankruptcy in November , the future of the plant is uncertain at best. Before independence, imports were mainly equipment, consumer goods, and foods.

Since independence, Uzbekistan has managed to stop imports of oil from Kazakhstan and has also lowered food imports by reseeding some cotton fields with grain.

Division of Labor. According to government statistics, 44 percent of workers are in agriculture and forestry; 20 percent in industry; 36 percent in the service sector.

Five percent unemployed, and 10 percent are underemployed. Many rural jobless, however, may be considered agricultural workers.

A particular feature of the Uzbekistan labor system is the requirement of school and university students, soldiers, and workers to help in the cotton harvest.

They go en masse to the fields for several days to hand-pick cotton. Many Uzbeks, particularly men, work in other parts of the former Soviet Union. Bazaars from Kazakhstan to Russia are full of Uzbek vendors, who command higher prices for their produce the farther north they travel.

Others work in construction or other seasonal labor to send hard currency home. Classes and Castes. During the Soviet Union, Uzbekistani society was stratified not by wealth but by access to products, housing, and services.

The nomenklatura could find high-quality consumer goods, cars, and homes that simply were unattainable by others.

It is impossible to quantify the number of wealthy, however, as the vast majority of their income is unreported, particularly if they are government officials.

Children walking home after school. As children grow older, school discipline increases. Many members of the former Soviet intelligentsia—teachers, artists, doctors, and other skilled service providers—have been forced to move into relatively unskilled jobs, such as bazaar vendors and construction workers, where they could earn more money.

Urban residents tend to earn twice the salaries of rural people. Symbols of Social Stratification. As elsewhere in the former Soviet Union, the new rich tend to buy and show off expensive cars and limousines, apartments, and clothes and to go to nightclubs.

Foreign foods and goods also are signs of wealth, as is a disdain for shopping in bazaars. Uzbekistan is in name republican but in practice authoritarian, with Kharimov's Halq Tarakiati Partiiasi, or People's Democratic Party, controlling all aspects of governance.

On 9 January he was reelected for a five-year term, with a 92 percent turnout and a 92 percent yes vote. Earlier, a March referendum to extend his term to resulted in a 99 percent turnout and a 99 percent yes vote.

The legislature, Oliy Majlis, was inaugurated in At that time the ruling party captured seats, though many of these candidates ran as independents.

The opposition political movement Birlik, or Unity, and the party Erk, or Will, lack the freedom to directly challenge the government.

Makhallas, or neighborhood councils of elders, provide the most direct governance. Some opinion polls have ranked makhallas just after the president in terms of political power.

Makhallahs address social needs ranging from taking care of orphans, loaning items, and maintaining orderly public spaces, to sponsoring holiday celebrations.

In Soviet times these were institutionalized, with makhalla heads and committees appointed by the local Communist Party. Then and now, however, makhallas have operated less smoothly in neighborhoods of mixed ethnicities.

Leadership and Political Officials. The president appoints the head, or khokim, of each of Uzbekistan's 12 regions, called viloyatlars, and of Karakalpakistan and Tashkent, who in turn appoint the khokims of the regional and city governments.

This top-down approach ensures a unity of government policies and leads to a diminishing sense of empowerment the farther one is removed from Kharimov.

Khokims and other officials were chiefly drawn from the Communist Party following independence—many simply kept their jobs—and many remain.

Nevertheless, Kharimov has challenged local leaders to take more initiative, and in he replaced half of them, usually with public administration and financial experts, many of whom are reform-minded.

Corruption is institutionalized at all levels of government, despite occasional prosecution of officials.

Students, for example, can expect to pay bribes to enter a university, receive high grades, or be exempted from the cotton harvest.

Social Problems and Control. The government has vigorously enforced laws related to drug trafficking and terrorism, and reports of police abuse and torture are widespread.

The constitution calls for independent judges and open access to proceedings and justice. In practice, defendants are seldom acquitted, and when they are, the government has the right to appeal.

Petty crime such as theft is becoming more common; violent crime is much rarer. Anecdotal evidence points to an increase in heroin use; Uzbekistan is a transshipment point from Afghanistan and Pakistan to Europe, and access is relatively easy despite tough antidrug laws.

People are often reluctant to call the police, as they are not trusted. Instead, it is the responsibility of families to see that their members act appropriately.

Local communities also exert pressure to conform. Military Activity. Uzbekistan's military in was skirmishing with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, a militant group opposed to the secular regime, and numbering in the hundreds or thousands.

Besides clashes in the mountains near the Tajikistani border, the group has been blamed for six car bombings in Tashkent in February Most domestic nongovernmental organizations are funded and supported by the government, and all must be registered.

Kamolot, registered in , is the major youth organization, and is modeled on the Soviet Komsomol.

Ekosan is an environmental group. The Uzbek Muslim Board has been active in building mosques and financing religious education. The Women's Committee of Uzbekistan, a government organization, is tasked with ensuring women's access to education as well as employment and legal rights, and claims three million members.

The government also has set up quasi nongovernmental organizations, at times to deflect attention from controversial organizations. The Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan, for example, was denied registration from to , before the government set up its own human rights monitor.

The leaders of these groups may receive privileges once granted to the Soviet nomenklatura, such as official cars and well-equipped offices.

There are no independent trade unions, though government-sponsored unions are common. The Employment Service and Employment Fund was set up in to address issues of social welfare, employment insurance, and health benefits for workers.

Ironically, some truly independent organizations from the Soviet period, such as the Committee to Save the Aral Sea, were declared illegal in Social groups associated with Birlik also have been denied registration.

As a result of the government's lack of reforms, in particular making the national currency convertible, major international donors are becoming reluctant Weddings are very important in Uzbek culture, as the family is the center of society.

The International Monetary Fund is pushing hard for convertibility before it gives further assistance.

The U. Agency for International Development in said it was hesitant to assist the government in any sectors other than health, as the government was smothering economic reform.

Division of Labor by Gender. Before the Soviet period, men worked outside the house while women did basic domestic work, or supplemented the family income by spinning, weaving, and embroidering with silk or cotton.

From the s on, women entered the workforce, at textile factories and in the cotton fields, but also in professional jobs opened to them by the Soviet education system.

They came to make up the great majority of teachers, nurses, and doctors. Family pressure, however, sometimes kept women from attaining higher education, or working outside the home.

With independence, some women have held on to positions of power, though they still may be expected to comport themselves with modesty.

Men in modern Uzbekistan, though, hold the vast majority of managerial positions, as well as the most labor-intensive jobs. It is common now for men to travel north to other former Soviet republics to work in temporary jobs.

Both sexes work in bazaars. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Uzbekistan is a male-dominated society, particularly in the Ferghana Valley.

Nevertheless, women make up nearly half the workforce. They hold just under 10 percent of parliamentary seats, and 18 percent of administrative and management positions, according to U.

Women run the households and traditionally control the family budgets. When guests are present they are expected to cloister themselves from view.

In public women are expected to cover their bodies completely. Full veiling is uncommon, though it is occasionally practiced in the Ferghana Valley.

Women often view this as an expression of their faith and culture rather than as an oppressive measure. Uzbek women usually marry by twenty-one; men not much later.

Marriage is an imperative for all, as families are the basic structure in society. A family's honor depends on their daughters' virginity; this often leads families to encourage early marriage.

In traditional Uzbek families, marriages are often still arranged between families; in more cosmopolitan ones it is the bride and groom's choice.

Either way, the match is subject to parental approval, with the mother in practice having the final word. Preference is given to members of the kin group.

There is particular family say in the youngest son's choice, as he and his bride will take care of his parents. People tend to marry in their late teens or early twenties.

Weddings often last for days, with the expense borne by the bride's family. The husband's family may pay a bride price. Polygamy is illegal and rare, but it is not unknown.

Following independence, divorce has become more common, though it is still rare outside of major cities. It is easier for a man to initiate divorce.

Domestic Unit. Uzbek families are patriarchal, though the mother runs the household. The average family size is five or six members, but families of ten or more are not uncommon.

Children are the primary claimants to the deceased's property. The youngest son receives the family house, along with the obligation to care A woman places flat bread dough in an oven, while another woman folds dough in a large bowl, Old Town, Khiva.

Families are patriarchal, but mothers run the households. Sons typically receive twice as large a share as daughters, though this can vary.

Kin Groups. Close relations extends to cousins, who have the rights and responsibilities of the nuclear family and often are called on for favors.

If the family lives in a detached house and there is space, the sons may build their homes adjacent to or around the courtyard of the parents' house.

Infant Care. Uzbek babies are hidden from view for their first forty days. They are tightly swaddled when in their cribs and carried by their mothers.

Men generally do not take care of or clean babies. Child Rearing and Education. Children are cherished as the reason for life. The mother is the primary caretaker, and in case of divorce, she will virtually always take the children.

The extended family and the community at large, however, also take an interest in the child's upbringing. When children are young, they have great freedom to play and act out.

But as they get older, particularly in school, discipline increases. A good child becomes one who is quiet and attentive, and all must help in the family's labor.

All children go to school for nine years, with some going on to eleventh grade; the government is increasing mandatory education to twelve years.

Higher Education. Enrollment in higher-education institutions is about 20 percent, down from more than 30 percent during the Soviet period. A major reason for the decline is that students do not feel a higher education will help them get a good job; also contributing is the emigration of Russians, and declining standards related to budget cutbacks.

Nevertheless, Uzbeks, particularly in cities, still value higher education, and the government gives full scholarships to students who perform well.

Elders are respected in Uzbek culture. At the dusterhon, younger guests will not make themselves more comfortable than their elders.

The younger person should always greet the older first. Men typically greet each other with a handshake, the left hand held over the heart.

Women place their right hand on the other's elbow. If they are close friends or relatives, they may kiss each other on the cheeks. If two acquaintances meet on the street, they will usually ask each other how their affairs are.

If the two don't know each other well, the greeting will be shorter, or could involve just a nod. Women are expected to be modest in dress and demeanor, with clothing covering their entire body.

In public they may walk with their head tilted down to avoid unwanted attention. In traditional households, women will not enter the room if male guests are present.

Likewise, it is considered forward to ask how a man's wife is doing. Women generally sit with legs together, their hands in their laps.

When men aren't present, however, women act much more casually. People try to carry themselves with dignity and patience, traits associated with royalty, though young men can be boisterous in public.

People tend to dress up when going out of the house. Once home they change, thus extending the life of their street clothes. Religious Beliefs.

Uzbeks are Sunni Muslims. The territory of Uzbekistan has been a center of Islam in the region for a thousand years, but under the Soviet Union the religion was heavily controlled: mosques were closed and Muslim education was banned.

Beginning in , Uzbeks have revived Islam, particularly in the Ferghana Valley, where mosques have been renovated. The call to prayer was everywhere heard five times a day before the government ordered the removal of the mosques' loudspeakers in The state encourages a moderate form of Islam, but Kharimov fears the creation of an Islamic state.

Since the beginning of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan's terror campaign in February , he has cracked down even further on what he perceives as extremists, raising claims of human rights abuses.

The government is particularly concerned about what it labels Wahhabism, a fundamentalist Sunni sect that took hold in the Ferghana Valley following independence.

Nine percent of the population is Russian Orthodox. Religious Practitioners. Most Sunni Uzbeks are led by a state-appointed mufti. Independent imams are sometimes repressed, and in May , a law requiring all religious groups to register with the government was enacted.

In addition to leading worship, the Muslim clergy has led mosque restoration efforts and is playing an increasing role in religious education.

Death and the Afterlife. Uzbeks bury their deceased within twenty-four hours of death, in above-ground tombs. At the funeral, women wail loudly and at specific times.

The mourning period lasts forty days. The first anniversary of the death is marked with a gathering of the person's friends and relatives.

Muslims believe that on Judgment Day, each soul's deeds will be weighed. They will then walk across a hair-thin bridge spanning Hell, which leads to Paradise.

The bridge will broaden under the feet of the righteous, but the damned will lose their balance and fall. Current health practices derive from the Soviet system.

Health care is considered a basic right of the entire population, with clinics, though ill-equipped, in most villages, and larger facilities in regional centers.

Emphasis is on treatment over prevention. Yet the state health care budget—80 million dollars in —falls far short of meeting basic needs; vaccinations, for example, fell off sharply following independence.

Exacerbating the situation is a lack of potable water, industrial pollution, and a rise in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis.

Perhaps the most common traditional health practices are shunning cold drinks and cold surfaces, which are believed to cause colds and damage to internal organs, and avoiding drafts, or bad winds.

Folk remedies and herbal treatments also are common. An example is to press bread to the ailing part of the body.

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